Tag Archives: lowercase

PHP string functions – strtolower and strtoupper

This tutorial explains how to convert strings to uppercase and lowercase using the strtolower and strtoupper functions. These functions each take one argument – the string that needs to be converted to lowercase or uppercase.

Example:

$uppercaseString = strtoupper($lowercaseString);

Watch the video below and then scroll down for the sample code.

PHP sample code:

<?php
  $mystring = "Hello world";
  
  // convert to uppercase
  $mystring_upper = strtoupper($mystring);

  // convert to lowercase
  $mystring_lower = strtolower($mystring);

  echo $mystring , "</br>";
  echo $mystring_upper , "</br>";
  echo $mystring_lower;
?>

Working with Strings in JavaScript

This video tutorial explains how to concatenate (join) strings, convert between integers and strings, change text to uppercase and lowercase, and also introduces indexing and arrays.

You can watch the video below or click here to view it on YouTube.  This is the fourth video from the beginners JavaScript tutorial video series.

The sample code snippet below shows how to join (concatenate) strings, find the length of a string (the number of characters in a string), convert from integer to string, display specific characters in a string, split a string up and place each word in a separate array element, and convert string to uppercase and lowercase.

Don’t try all of this in one go. Have a go at one string operation at a time and only move on to the next one when you feel comfortable to.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
 <meta charset="utf-8"/>
 <title>JavaScript - Strings</title>
 <script type="text/javascript">
 
 var firstName = "Nicolas";
 var lastName = "Cage";
 
 // Concatenation means joining (eg. joining two strings together to form one string
 // Below, is an example of a concatenated string being held in a variable
 var joinednames = firstName + lastName;
 
 // Below, is an example of concatention with spaces added between words.
 document.write(firstName,' ',lastName,' ',"says \"hello\".");
 
 var fullName = firstName + ' ' + lastName; // this combines two variables and a space between the strings into a new variable
 
 document.write(fullName)
 
 var nameLength = fullName.length; // this calculates the length of the string as an integer
 document.write(nameLength);
 
 var age = 20;
 document.write(fullName + age); // this prints the name string and then the variable (no spaces) 
 
 var ageString = age.toString(); // this converts the age integer variable to a string variable
 document.write(ageString);
 
 /* To convert a string to an integer, the variable must firstly contain ony numbers. It can simply be multiplied by 1 to convert to an integer
 eg. newIntVariable = stringVariable * 1
 or you can use parseInt and parseFloat functions eg parseInt('77');
 */
 
 var message = 'Hello world!';
 document.write(message.indexOf('w')) // the indexOf function finds the index number of a character in a string
 document.write(message.charAt(8)) // this gives the character at index number 8
 document.write(message.length) // this will give the length of the string
 
 var messageArray = new Array();
 messageArray = message.split(' '); //this splits the words (where there is a space) into a new array
 document.write(messageArray[0],"</br>"); // this would return "Hello" (and a new line)
 document.write(messageArray[1]); // this would return "world!"
 
 document.write(message.substring(4,8)); //this will show anything between index number 4 and 8
 document.write(message.substr(4,8)); //substr is different to substring. this will show the 8 characters after index number 4.
 
 document.write(message.toUpperCase()); // converts string to uppercase
 document.write(message.toLowerCase()); // converts string to lowercase
 document.write("<b>",message.toUpperCase(),"</b>"); // this prints the uppercase string in bold using the HTML bold element <b>
 document.write("<h1>This is a heading</h1>"); // HTML elements can be put straight into a string
 </script>
 
</head>
<body>
 
 
</body>
</html>

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