Tag Archives: split

Slicing (splitting) and merging arrays in PHP

This tutorial explains how to splice (split) an array into more than one array by specifying a new array and where to split the existing array, and also how to merge two arrays into a single array. Watch the video below and then scroll down to see the sample code.

Sample PHP code:

  // slicing (splitting) arrays using the array_slice function
  $heroes = array("hulk","wonder woman","superman","iron man");
  $new_heroes = array_slice($heroes,1,3);
  foreach($new_heroes as $value){
    echo "$value </br>";

  // merging arrays using the array_merge function
  $more_heroes = array("spider-man","batman");
  $all_heroes = array_merge($heroes,$more_heroes);
  foreach($all_heroes as $value){
    echo "$value </br>";

Advanced Camera Techniques in Unity

In this tutorial we will look at how to add cameras to objects, how to set up a split screen camera system, and how to add a picture-in-picture (PIP) effect to your game. Scroll down to watch the video.

Adding cameras to objects are particularly useful for when you want to add a camera view to a character or game object eg. first person view inside a car.

Split screen camera systems are great for multiplayer games because you can have one player using the top half of the screen and another player using the bottom half of the screen. You could set up two cameras or you could have four cameras taking up the screen if you have four players in the game. Take a look at the example below.

Two players using split screen camera system.
Two players using split screen camera system.

Picture-in-picture (PIP) effects are great for maps and rear-camera views. For example, you could use a camera to display a map in the top corner of the screen so the player knows where they are located in the game’s world. You could also use a PIP effect to display a rear-view mirror so that a player can see behind their car in a racing game. Take a look at the example below.

A picture-in-picture (PIP) effect with a second camera view.
A picture-in-picture (PIP) effect with a second camera view.

We will also look at how to handle errors that you might see related to multiple audio listeners. To find out how to add cameras to objects, add split screen camera systems and PIP effects, watch the video below.


Working with Strings in JavaScript

This video tutorial explains how to concatenate (join) strings, convert between integers and strings, change text to uppercase and lowercase, and also introduces indexing and arrays.

You can watch the video below or click here to view it on YouTube.  This is the fourth video from the beginners JavaScript tutorial video series.

The sample code snippet below shows how to join (concatenate) strings, find the length of a string (the number of characters in a string), convert from integer to string, display specific characters in a string, split a string up and place each word in a separate array element, and convert string to uppercase and lowercase.

Don’t try all of this in one go. Have a go at one string operation at a time and only move on to the next one when you feel comfortable to.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
 <meta charset="utf-8"/>
 <title>JavaScript - Strings</title>
 <script type="text/javascript">
 var firstName = "Nicolas";
 var lastName = "Cage";
 // Concatenation means joining (eg. joining two strings together to form one string
 // Below, is an example of a concatenated string being held in a variable
 var joinednames = firstName + lastName;
 // Below, is an example of concatention with spaces added between words.
 document.write(firstName,' ',lastName,' ',"says \"hello\".");
 var fullName = firstName + ' ' + lastName; // this combines two variables and a space between the strings into a new variable
 var nameLength = fullName.length; // this calculates the length of the string as an integer
 var age = 20;
 document.write(fullName + age); // this prints the name string and then the variable (no spaces) 
 var ageString = age.toString(); // this converts the age integer variable to a string variable
 /* To convert a string to an integer, the variable must firstly contain ony numbers. It can simply be multiplied by 1 to convert to an integer
 eg. newIntVariable = stringVariable * 1
 or you can use parseInt and parseFloat functions eg parseInt('77');
 var message = 'Hello world!';
 document.write(message.indexOf('w')) // the indexOf function finds the index number of a character in a string
 document.write(message.charAt(8)) // this gives the character at index number 8
 document.write(message.length) // this will give the length of the string
 var messageArray = new Array();
 messageArray = message.split(' '); //this splits the words (where there is a space) into a new array
 document.write(messageArray[0],"</br>"); // this would return "Hello" (and a new line)
 document.write(messageArray[1]); // this would return "world!"
 document.write(message.substring(4,8)); //this will show anything between index number 4 and 8
 document.write(message.substr(4,8)); //substr is different to substring. this will show the 8 characters after index number 4.
 document.write(message.toUpperCase()); // converts string to uppercase
 document.write(message.toLowerCase()); // converts string to lowercase
 document.write("<b>",message.toUpperCase(),"</b>"); // this prints the uppercase string in bold using the HTML bold element <b>
 document.write("<h1>This is a heading</h1>"); // HTML elements can be put straight into a string

Next tutorial: Events